Reports on international cooperation for climate change mitigation
Reports commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency on international cooperation for climate change mitigation.
- Article 6.4 crediting outside of NDC commitments under the Paris Agreement: issues and options (2017)
- Features and implications of NDCs for carbon markets (2017)
- Environmental integrity and additionality in the new context of the Paris Agreement crediting mechanisms (2017)
- Benchmark levels of ambition from country's INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions) (2016)
- International Cooperation under the Paris Agreement - Exploring opportunities for Swedish cooperation with developing countries (2016)
- Crediting early action: options, opportunities and risks (2016)
- Net Mitigation through the CDM (2013)
- National policies and the CDM rules: options for the future (2013)
Randall Spalding-Fecher (Carbon Limits)
A key question related to the rules for the Article 6.4 mechanism under the Paris Agreement is whether the mitigation activities generating emission reductions must be inside the scope of the transferring country’s NDC or not. Many countries do not have economy-wide NDC commitments, with some sectors or gases being excluded, including some countries that have stated their interest in engaging with the international market mechanisms.
Given the limited coverage of NDCs in many countries, the potential for emission reductions through voluntary cooperation on mitigation outside of NDCs is clearly substantial.
This paper examines the benefits and risks of allowing Article 6.4 crediting outside of the scope of NDC commitments, as well as the policy options to mitigate those risks.
Andrew Howard (Koru Climate), Thiago Chagas (Climate Focus), Jelmer Hoogzaad (Climate Focus) and Stephan Hoch (Perspectives)
This comprehensive report maps out issues needing to be resolved to operationalize voluntary cooperation under Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement. It has a particular focus on what may need to be addressed by decisions under the UNFCCC, including in relation to nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Guidance in these areas needs to be adopted by the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA) at the end of 2018.
The report is structured around the interplay of three key factors:
- NDC features
- Accounting for NDCs and internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs)
- Generation of mitigation outcomes
The report concludes by discussing possible directions that may be taken in the CMA guidance and suggesting areas where reaching an early understanding among countries could help unlock the further negotiations.
Randall Spalding-Fecher & Francois Sammut (Carbon Limits), Derik Broekhoff (SEI-US Center) and Jürg Füssler (INFRAS)
The major shift under the Paris Agreement versus the Kyoto Protocol is that all countries have pledges. Article 6 gives the possibility for Parties, on a voluntary basis, to cooperate on mitigation (and adaptation) towards achieving their NDCs.
The report explores two aspects; how environmental integrity could be ensured and what additionality and baselines means in the new context of the Paris agreement for activities undertaken under Article 6.2 and Article 6.4 respectively.
Benchmark levels of ambition from country's INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions)
Dr. Cyril Cassisa and Yasmine Arsalane (Enerdata)
The Swedish Energy Agency commissioned Enerdata to analyse ways to appreciate and benchmark levels of ambition from country's INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contributions). The project focused on mitigation which is the key action to reduce speed and amplitude of climate change future variations. The report analysis, based on scenarios, provide trends and key findings on emission pathways with their implications on energy sectors for a representative set of emerging and middle income countries and regions.
Jelmer Hoogzaad, Adriaan Korthuis, Sandra Greiner, Morten Pedersen and Emelie Öhlander
The success of the Paris Agreement to achieve its global mitigation ambition will hinge largely on the ability of countries to translate their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) into mitigation action. The report suggests opportunities for Swedish international cooperation on climate action to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
Lambert Schneider and Hanna-Mari Ahonen
Net Mitigation through the CDM
Christiaan Vrolijk with Gareth Phillips
With negotiations on a new climate regime underway, there is growing demand for increased contribution to climate change mitigation by all Parties, and calls for carbon market mechanisms, including the CDM, to deliver net mitigation beyond offsetting. With a review of the existing mechanisms underway, new approaches being developed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and negotiations ongoing on a global climate regime from 2020 onwards, the contribution of the CDM to net mitigation has been topic of lively – and timely – debate. A variety of options is available for delivering net mitigation via the CDM. This report explores a total of thirteen, assessed against six criteria, such as ease of implementation, wide applicability and transparent and accurate accounting. In this report, we consider 'net mitigation' to mean that part of the reductions achieved by CDM projects are not used for offsetting Annex I emissions.
The question of how to consider national policies in baseline and additionality determination has been a controversial one since the early days of the CDM. As the climate regime evolves to include additional carbon market mechanisms and support for domestic action, this question becomes both more important and more complex because of the potential for interaction between different mechanisms and policy instruments. At the same time, the slow pace of negotiations on new mechanisms may open up more opportunity to push the boundaries of the CDM. The purpose of this paper is to explore options and provide recommendations on how the CDM rules and practices on national policies could be changed both to increase the transparency and the integrity of the CDM; to explore how national policies may be addressed in new mechanisms; and to address the potential interactions with new carbon market mechanisms and support programmes.