Cooperation under the Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. The agreement included a common, legally binding target for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Initiatives under the Kyoto Protocol are presently coming to an end, being replaced by new types of cooperation under the Paris Agreement.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, countries could fulfil some of their commitments through initiatives in other countries. For this purpose, two forms of collaboration emerged: the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). CDM allows for developed nations to support projects in developing countries that generate emission reductions. These reductions could then be purchased and used to fulfil national commitments for the developed country. JI works in a similar manner but was used when both parties had national commitments.
The Swedish Energy Agency established Sweden's program for international climate initiatives in 2002, to support CDM and JI projects in other countries whilst contributing to Sweden’s mitigation targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
From 2002 to 2020, Sweden financed individual energy projects in developing countries with SEK 987 million. In addition, Sweden financed funds and programs that focused on developing and implementing climate and energy projects in developing countries with SEK 1 072& million. By the end of 2020, all projects had achieved emission reductions corresponding to 30,7 million tonnes of verified CO2.
Half of the emission reduction units (delivered and planned) origin from renewable energy projects, such as wind, water and solar energy. About a quarter comes from energy efficiency projects, and the remaining quarter comes from projects relating to biogas production and reducing greenhouse gas leakage from landfills.
Collaborations under the Kyoto Protocol are currently being phased out, while new activities see the light of day under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. Sweden's CDM and JI program under the Kyoto Protocol will end in 2022.