Carbon capture and storage
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of many tools Sweden is adopting to reach its climate goals. The Swedish Energy Agency has been commissioned by the government to promote and deploy CCS in Sweden.
The European Union (EU) is committing to carbon neutrality by 2050 and by 2045 Sweden is expected to reach the goal of net zero emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Thereafter, Sweden is to achieve negative emissions. To accomplish this, the use of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) will be important, as stated by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the EU.
The carbon dioxide is separated from flue gases in, for example, a combined heat and power plant or a process manufacturing industry. After being captured, the carbon dioxide is compressed under high pressure into a supercritical state, making it essentially fluid.
The carbon dioxide can be transported to its permanent storage site or to an intermediate storage site through pipeline, by ship, train or tanker.
The carbon dioxide is often stored intermediately on its way to the permanent storage site. Common intermediate storage sites are containers near the capture site or in a port.
The permanent storage is done through injecting the carbon dioxide hundreds to thousands of metres below the seabed into geological formations. Here, the carbon dioxide eventually turns to stone.
Norway has been highlighted as a suitable alternative for permanent storage of carbon dioxide, due to its great expertise from the oil and gas industry and favourable geological conditions under the North Sea. Also, other countries with prominent oil and gas industries have come a long way with storage projects and several of them are willing to import carbon dioxide for permanent storage. A permanent storage site on Swedish territory lies in a distant future.