Cooperation under the Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. The agreement included a common, legally binding target for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.

Under the Kyoto Protocol, countries could fulfil some of their commitments through initiatives in other countries. For this purpose, two forms of collaboration emerged: the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). CDM allows for developed nations to support projects in developing countries that generate emission reductions. These reductions could then be purchased and used to fulfil national commitments for the developed country. JI works in a similar manner but was used when both parties had national commitments. The Swedish Energy Agency established Sweden's program for international climate initiatives in 2002, to support CDM and JI projects in other countries whilst contributing to Sweden’s mitigation targets under the Kyoto Protocol.

From 2002 to 2021, Sweden financed individual energy projects in developing countries with SEK 956 million. In addition, Sweden financed funds and programs that focused on developing and implementing climate and energy projects in developing countries with SEK 899 million. By the end of 2021, all projects had achieved emission reductions corresponding to 31,6 million tonnes of verified CO2.

Half of the emission reduction units (delivered and planned) origin from renewable energy projects, such as wind, water and solar energy. About a quarter comes from energy efficiency projects, and the remaining quarter comes from projects relating to biogas production and reducing greenhouse gas leakage from landfills.

In 2021, Sweden financed individual projects and funds of a total value of around SEK 58 million that achieved verified emission reductions corresponding to around 900 000 tonnes of CO2. Between 2022 and 2025, verified emission reductions of another 2.1 tonnes CO2 are expected to be transferred to Sweden for a total cost of around SEK 79 million.

Collaborations under the Kyoto Protocol are currently being phased out, while new activities see the light of day under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement. Sweden's CDM and JI program under the Kyoto Protocol will end in 2022.

CDM allows for developed nations to support projects in developing countries that generate emission reductions. These reductions could then be purchased and used to fulfil national commitments for the developed country. JI works in a similar manner but was used when both parties had national commitments.